Turkish Fir (Abies bornmuelleriana)


Abies bornmuelleriana, known as the Turkish fir, is a rare, coniferous evergreen tree, included in the group of Mediterranean firs and most likely a natural hybrid between Caucasian fir (Abies nordmanniana) and Grecian fir (Abies cephalonica). Its native range is limited to northern Turkey, near the Black Sea coast. The Turkish fir has a silvery colour on the back of its foliage, revealed as a result of its needles’ upwards growth habit. This feature makes the tree a popular ornamental with its pleasant fragrance.

The Turkish fir is typically a narrow and conical tree, with a mature height of 20 to 30 meters with a spread of 1.8 to 4 meters. It has dense, dark green upswept needles 2.5 to 3 cm long. Seed cones are purplish-brown and 10 to 14.5 cm long.

The Turkish fir prefers acidic, well-drained and rich soils. The tree tolerates a broader range of mean annual temperatures compared to several other Mediterranean firs. It is mildly drought tolerant and can cope with short periods without water once established. Mulch in summer to retain moisture and fertilise annually.


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